## Extreme Heat Fieldwork and Adaptation

We have two fieldwork based resources which allow students to investigate the microclimate of their schools – inside and out – during a heatwave and then evaluate potential adaptation options.

The first resource has been developed by Rob Gamesby (Cool Geography) with the Royal Meteorological Society and the Field Studies Council for the National Festival of Fieldwork.

All schools in England have to produce a Climate Action Plan, and part of that action plan involves assessing the schools’ vulnerability to extreme weather, such as heatwaves, and taking actions to reduce the risk of extreme heat.

These fieldwork options are designed to allow secondary geography students in our schools to explore how vulnerable their school is and what can be done to adapt to that risk.

The second resource was developed in conjunction with the Young People’s Trust for the Environment and consists of a four lesson scheme of work looking at heatwaves:

• Lesson 1: What are heatwaves?
• Lesson 2: Why are heatwaves dangerous?
• Lesson 3: How can schools prepare for a heatwave?
• Lesson 4: What is your school like during a heatwave and how could it be improved?

## Secondary Maths Lessons

Developed in Partnership with Dr Frost Learning, these resources are suitable to 11-16 maths teaching (KS3 and KS4 in England), unless otherwise indicated.

Each lesson features a lesson PowerPoint as well as printable exercise and investigation sheets.

## Changing the Subject with Higher Powers, Roots Including Brackets and Fractions

Climate change context

Rearranging the formula for the power derived from a wind turbine, and substituting values into its rearranged form.

Prior Learning:

• Solve simple linear equations.
• Form simple expressions & formulae
• Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:
– ab in place of a×b,
– 3y in place of y+y+y and 3×y,
– a/b in place of a÷b,
– coefficients written as fractions rather than as decimals.
– brackets.
• Distinguish between expressions, equations, inequalities, terms and factors
• Order of operations
• Change the subject of a linear formula requiring two steps (including simple divisions).
• Change the subject of a formula where the subject is multiplied or divided by more than one constant or variable.
• Change the subject of a formula where the subject appears on the denominator of a fraction.
• Change the subject of a linear formula where the coefficient of the subject is negative.
• Expanding single brackets.
• Change the subject of a linear formula involving multiplication using brackets.
• Change the subject of a linear formula requiring two steps resulting in a bracket.
• Change the subject of a formula with brackets and fractions.
• Change the subject of a formula where the subject is squared and with additional steps

Lesson ppt

Mixed Exercise pdf

## Change the Subject of a Linear Formula Involving Brackets and Fractions

Climate change context

2023 being confirmed as the hottest year on record

Prior Learning:

• Solve simple linear equations.
• Form simple expressions & formulae
• Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:
• 𝑎𝑏 in place of 𝑎×𝑏,
• 3𝑦 in place of 𝑦+𝑦+𝑦 and 3×𝑦,
• 𝑎/𝑏 in place of 𝑎÷𝑏,
• coefficients written as fractions rather than as decimals.
• Brackets
• Distinguish between expressions, equations, inequalities, terms and factors
• Order of operations
• Change the subject of a linear formula requiring a single step.
• Change the subject of a linear formula requiring two steps (including simple divisions).
• Change the subject of a formula where the subject is multiplied or divided by more than one constant or variable.
• Change the subject of a formula where the subject appears on the denominator of a fraction.
• Change the subject of a linear formula where the coefficient of the subject is negative.
• Expanding single brackets.
• Change the subject of a linear formula involving multiplication using brackets.

Lesson ppt

## Substitution with the Four Operations and Integers

Substitution is the process of replacing the variables in an algebraic expression, usually with a numerical value. We can then work out the total value of the expression.

Climate change context

Calculating household carbon dioxide emissions

Prior Learning:

• Negative numbers and arithmetic
• Decimals and arithmetic
• Fractions and arithmetic
• Powers and roots
• Basic algebraic notation
• Using function machines & their inverses

Lesson ppt

## Integer Substitution with Powers and Roots

Climate change contexts:

Substitution and the Sahara

Rainforest deforestation

Prior Learning

• Substitution with four operations and integers
• Using notation for powers and roots
• Knowing powers and roots with base 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10

Lesson ppt

## Substitution with Fractions and Decimals

Prior Learning

• Decimals and arithmetic
• Fractions and arithmetic
• Powers and roots
• Basic algebraic notation
• Substitution using integers with the four operations
• Substitution using integers with powers and roots

Lesson ppt

Exercise pdf

Investigation Sheet 1 – Wind Turbine

## Form Simple Expressions

Climate Change Contexts

Arctic warming

Building insulation

Carbon footprint of social media

Emissions reductions

Prior Learning

• Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:

–ab in place of a×b,

–3y in place of y+y+y and 3×y,

–a/b in place of a÷b,

–coefficients written as fractions rather than as decimals.

–brackets

• Simplify expressions with sums, products and powers including index laws
• Distinguish between expressions, equations, inequalities, terms and factors
• Algebraic substitution
• Recognise & create equivalent expressions
• Order of operations

Lesson ppt

## Form and Use Simple Formulae

Climate Change Contexts

Tree planting

Vehicle emission reductions

Solar panel output

Prior Knowledge

• Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:

–ab in place of a×b,

–3y in place of y+y+y and 3×y,

–a/b in place of a÷b,

–coefficients written as fractions rather than as decimals.

–brackets

• Simplify expressions with sums, products and powers including index laws
• Distinguish between expressions, equations, inequalities, terms and factors
• Algebraic substitution
• Recognise & create equivalent expressions
• Order of operations
• Form simple expressions

Lesson ppt

## Form and Solve Linear Equations from Simple Contexts

Climate Change Context

Emission reductions and net zero

Prior Knowledge

• Solve simple linear equations.
• Solve linear equations with brackets.
• Solve linear equations where the variable appears on both sides of the equation.
• Solve linear equations involving brackets.
• Expanding single brackets.
• Form simple expressions & formulae.
• Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:

–ab in place of a×b,

–3y in place of y+y+y and 3×y,

–a/b in place of a÷b,

–coefficients written as fractions rather than as decimals.

–Brackets.

Lesson ppt

## Form and Solve Linear Equations for Problems Involving Perimeter and Area

Climate Change Context

Carbon footprint/ growing food

Tree planting

Prior Knowledge

• Find the area and perimeter of simple shapes.
• Solve simple linear equations.
• Solve linear equations where the variable appears on both sides of the equation.
• Expanding single brackets.
• Form simple expressions & formulae
• Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:

–ab in place of a×b,

–3y in place of y+y+y and 3×y,

–a/b in place of a÷b,

–coefficients written as fractions rather than as decimals.

–Brackets

• Simplify expressions with sums, products and powers including index laws
• Distinguish between expressions, equations, inequalities, terms and factors
• Algebraic substitution
• Recognise & create equivalent expressions
• Order of operations

Lesson

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

## Changing the Subject – One Step

Climate Change Context

Ocean Warming

Prior Knowledge

• Solve simple linear equations.
• Expanding single brackets.
• Form simple expressions & formulae
• Use and interpret algebraic notation, including:

–ab in place of a×b,

–3y in place of y+y+y and 3×y,

–a/b in place of a÷b,

–coefficients written as fractions rather than as decimals.

–Brackets

• Simplify expressions with sums, products and powers including index laws
• Distinguish between expressions, equations, inequalities, terms and factors
• Algebraic substitution
• Order of operations

Lesson

Exercise 1

Dr Frost Learning is a UK registered charity with goal of delivering high quality education for all individuals and institutions regardless of income, centred around the philosophy that education is a fundamental right of all and central to addressing social inequality on a global level. The charity was founded by Dr Jamie Frost and he received the Covid Hero Award in the Global Teacher Prize 2020.

## Climate Change Concept Association Tool

This tool is best used on a laptop or other larger screen and may not function correctly on a phone.

## Carbon Dioxide – Seasonal Cycles

An exam style question suitable for GCSE science.

## Notes for Teachers

The units for the data are in fact ppmv which we have simplified to ‘parts per million’ for this question.

This is a nice visualisation of what 420ppmv looks like.

The questions explore the fact that there is a seasonal cycle in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere because plants take up carbon dioxide during photosynthesis in the spring and summer, which is then released back into the atmosphere when plants die and leaves rot in the autumn and winter.

Carbon dioxide is a well mixed gas, meaning that the data recorded at Mauna Loa is representative of the Northern Hemisphere, and that at the South Pole is representative of the Southern Hemisphere.

The seasons are out of phase with each other – when it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

As there is far less vegetation in the Southern Hemisphere than in the Northern Hemisphere, the seasonal cycle is much smaller.

Students may notice that there could also be a human element to the cycle – we burn more fossil fuels in the winter than in the summer (and there are also fewer people in the Southern Hemisphere).

The correct answer for the mean is 416.1 parts per million.

As well as the seasonal cycle, the graph provided shows the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1958. This increase is because of the emissions of carbon dioxide by human activities including land use change including deforestation, burning fossil fuels and cement production.

## Climate Change Glossary and Resources

Select a letter to see a definition of the terms in the climate change association tool. Alternatively, to find a teaching resource associated with any of the terms, use the ‘all climate change’ drop-down menu on the right. Not all the terms have associated resources yet, but we are adding new ones all the time.

## Scotland’s Curriculum – EVolution of vehicle sales

Resource produced in collaboration with MEI

Brief overview of session ‘logic’

• Explore the infographic – what can be worked out from this information and what questions does it raise?
• Look at trends in vehicle registrations
• Look at proportions of types of newly registered vehicles over time – why has the percentage of petrol cars being registered increased from 2015 to 2020?
• Do some calculations to show that the number of petrol cars being registered has decreased from 2015 to 2020.
• Reflect upon the implications for misleading representations of data
• Consider the implications of the ban on new petrol and diesel cars by 2035 – what affect will this ban have on the proportions of car types being registered?
•  What questions does the increase in electric vehicles raise?

Mathematical opportunities offered

• Interpretation of data, statistics, graphs, infographics in context
• Critiquing graphs
• Calculating percentages
• Exploring proportions of quantities over time
• Making conjectures about future proportions given available data
• Analysing and comparing data in order to develop and present a conclusion.

## Scotland’s Curriculum- EVolution of vehicle sales

Resource produced in collaboration with MEI

Brief overview of session ‘logic’

• Explore the infographic – what can be worked out from this information and what questions does it raise?
• Look at trends in vehicle registrations
• Look at proportions of types of newly registered vehicles over time – why has the percentage of petrol cars being registered increased from 2015 to 2020?
• Do some calculations to show that the number of petrol cars being registered has decreased from 2015 to 2020.
• Reflect upon the implications for misleading representations of data
• Consider the implications of the ban on new petrol and diesel cars by 2035 – what affect will this ban have on the proportions of car types being registered?
• What questions does the increase in electric vehicles raise?

Mathematical opportunities offered

• Interpretation of data, statistics, graphs, infographics in context
• Critiquing graphs
• Calculating percentages
• Exploring proportions of quantities over time
• Making conjectures about future proportions given available data
• Analysing and comparing data in order to develop and present a conclusion.

## Scotland’s Curriculum – Trees for Net Zero

Resource produced in collaboration with MEI

This resource comprises several stand-alone activities which may be used separately.

Brief overview of session ‘logic’

• Why trees are good
• People are planting trees – estimates around what the numbers look like in terms of land use
• Some companies encourage you to offset flights by planting trees – how many trees for one flight?
• How much carbon do trees capture and store?
• How does the amount of carbon captured and stored by a tree change during its lifecycle?
• What happens to that carbon when a tree dies?
• Can you plant a tree to offset a flight?
• What is Net Zero?

Mathematical opportunities offered

• Estimation and proportional reasoning
• Developing a sense of scale of large numbers
• Interpretation of data, statistics, graphs, infographics in context
• Critiquing graphs
• Analysing and comparing data in order to develop and present a conclusion
• Making assumptions
• Making predictions

## Scotland’s Curriculum Trees for Net Zero

Resource produced in collaboration with MEI

Note that this session is made up of separate activities which may be used independently.

Brief overview of session ‘logic’

• Why trees are good
• People are planting trees – estimates around what the numbers look like in terms of land use
• Some companies encourage you to offset flights by planting trees – how many trees for one flight?
• How much carbon do trees sequester?
• How does the amount of carbon sequestered by a tree change during its lifecycle?
• What happens to that carbon when a tree dies?
• Can you plant a tree to offset a flight?
• What is Net Zero?
• Can trees be used to achieve Net Zero?

Mathematical opportunities offered

• Estimation and proportional reasoning
• Developing a sense of scale of large numbers
• Converting between m2 and km2
• Interpretation of data, statistics, graphs, infographics in context
• Critiquing graphs
• Analysing and comparing data in order to develop and present a conclusion
• Making assumptions
• Making predictions

## Scotland’s Curriculum – Extreme Weather

Resource produced in collaboration with MEI

Brief overview of session ‘logic’

• Do reports of extreme cold weather provide evidence that global warming is not happening?
• Show the New York Times graphs of summer temperature distributions for the Northern Hemisphere for different periods.
• Interrogate/critique these graphs
• The distributions of temperatures are approximately Normal distributions and the mean and standard deviation both increase as the time period becomes more recent.
• Use the dynamic bell curve to calculate probabilities of different temperatures in different time periods.
• Despite the mean temperature increasing, the standard deviation also increasing means that the probability of extreme low temperatures increases.
• Normal distributions and bell curves can explain a higher frequency of extreme cold weather despite global warming.

Mathematical opportunities offered

• Interpretation of data, statistics, graphs, infographics in context
• Critiquing graphs