Internal combustion engines

A country’s government wants to reduce the number of cars using internal combustion engines by encouraging the purchase of electric vehicles.

The total number of cars using internal combustion engines in a country at time t can be modelled by the equation

\[N\left( t \right) = \left( 3.5 \times 10^{7} + E \right)e^{- \frac{1}{10}t} – E\]

Where N(t) is the number of cars using internal combustion engines at time t years after the program was introduced and E is the number of electric vehicles on the roads before the government initiative.

Using the equation for this model,

a) Explain the significance of the number 3.5 x 107.

[1 mark]


b) Explain why the initial number of cars using internal combustion engines is independent of the initial number of electric vehicles.

[2 marks]

c) Calculate the number of cars using internal combustion engines after 10 years if the initial number of electric vehicles is 2 x 106.

[2 marks]

d) Analyse the suitability of this model by evaluating it for large values of t.

[2 marks]

Net-Zero Buses

15 cities, each of varying sizes, decide to have carbon-neutral public transport systems.

When the cities are arranged in size order from smallest to largest, the number of new electric buses they need follows an arithmetic sequence with first term (representing the smallest amount of buses needed for the smallest city) a buses and common difference d buses. 

The 7ᵗʰ city in this progression needs 580 new electric buses and the largest city needs 1020 new electric buses.

Find the value of a and the value of d.

[5 marks]

EV Increase

A country decides to subsidise the purchase of electric vehicles, causing more people to buy them.

Initially, the country used an equivalent of 56 million tonnes of oil for transport.

Since the government subsidy, the transport sector in each subsequent year has required 80% of the amount of oil that the previous year required.


a) Write a recurrence relation to model the amount of oil used, in million tonnes, in each subsequent year.

[2 marks]

b) Find the amount of oil needed for the transport sector after the fifth year.

[2 marks]

c) Find the total amount of oil used until the transport sector requires no more oil.

[4 marks]

d) State one limitation with the model.

[1 mark]

A Changing Transport System

Cars and transport, and the gases and particulates that they emit from their exhausts have a serious effect on the environment and on human health.

In the future the transport system will have to look very different.
For example, in the UK there could be

three times as many journeys using electric buses rather than using bicycles

and two times as many journeys using bicycles than using private electric cars.

For the people in the UK write down the ratio of journeys using electric buses to bicycles to private electric cars.
[3 marks]