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Country Background Information: Australia

Australian flag

If possible, download these two documents to your phone, so that you can refer to them later:

Key country facts


great barrier reef

Off the north east coast of Australia is the Great Barrier Reef – the world’s largest coral reef system covering 344,400 km2. The Reef is home to more than 2000 species of corals and fish and other marine animals such as whales, dolphins, sharks, and rays. However, continuous increases in ocean temperatures have caused more than 60% of the corals in the Great Barrier Reef to bleach. 25% are severely bleached.


Like kangaroos, koalas are native to Australia. They live in forests and woodlands and feed off leaves of eucalypts. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has recently listed them as Vulnerable because of the impacts of climate change and loss of habitat. 10 000 koalas died in the 2019/ 2020 Australian bushfires.

bondi beach

Because of its size, Australia has a variety of weather and seasons depending on the region. The popular Bondi Beach in New South Wales can be found in the temperate zone, where average summer temperature is between 16 and 26 °C. However, during heatwaves, temperature can reach as high as 48 °C.


Known as the oldest civilization, Aborigines lived in Australia long before the arrival of European settlers in the 1700s. Aboriginal Australians have a very diverse culture – rich with arts, music, and dance. Source: Flickr / Dan Lundberg

gold mine

One of the biggest industry in Australia is mining. It is also a large contributor to the country’s economy. Apart from gold, Australia also mines coal, uranium, iron ore, nickel, bauxite, lead, copper, zinc, mineral sands and diamonds.

Australia city

About 25 million people live in Australia, where 86% reside and work in urban areas. The country also has one of the highest living costs in the world. On average, living costs in Australia are 13% higher than in the UK.


Australia is one of the world’s largest coal exporters. Gladstone Port in Queensland exports about 70 million tonnes of coal per year. Coal accounts for 40% of Australia’s energy use and 72% of electricity generation.

sydney opera house

Built in 1973, the Opera House in Sydney is named as one of the most distinctive buildings of the 20th century. It attracts 10.9 million visitors every year.

bush fire

Bushfires are common in Australia because of its generally hot and dry climate, topography and flammable vegetation like eucalypts. Every year, bushfires cause damage to properties and loss of life. Australia’s summer of 2019/20 released more carbon dioxide than Australia does in a year. Bushfires are becoming more common.

royal exhibition hall

The Royal Exhibition building, surrounded by the iconic Carlton Gardens, is the first UNESCO World Heritage Listing in Australia. It was built in 1880 and remains as the only surviving Great Hall for exhibitions.