An Offshore Wind Farm

Below is a diagram of 3 offshore wind turbines, A, B and C, in a wind farm, as seen from above.

An Offshore Wind Farm Diagram

Given that the bearing from turbine C to turbine B is 90˚, and the distance from turbine A to turbine B is 3 km

Calculate the distances AC and CB.

[4 marks]

The Rates of Sea Level Rise

The graph shows satellite measurements of global sea level rise since 2000. 

(mm = millimetres)

the rates of sea level rise chart

a) Draw a line of best fit through the data between 1993 and 2010, and work out the rate of global sea level rise.

[3 marks]

b) Draw a line of best fit through the data between 2010 and 2018, and work out the rate of global sea level rise. 

[3 marks]

c) What does the difference between the rate in part b) and the rate in part c) tell us about how global sea level rise is changing? 

[1 mark]

Arctic Ice Melting

The increasing global temperature due to human-induced climate change is causing ice in the Arctic to melt, particularly over the summer season, July to September.

Arctic Ice Melting Diagram

In September 1999, there was 6.2 million km2 of Arctic sea ice.

In September 2015, there was 4.6 million km2 of Arctic sea ice.

Work out the percentage decrease in Arctic sea ice from September 1999 to September 2015. 

[3 marks]

Extinct Species Per Degree

Climate change can lead to species extinction through changing habitats rapidly, not leaving the species time to adapt. Warming at the moment is at 1°C.

A study of 105000 species suggests that for each extra 1°C of warming above pre-industrial temperatures, 9% of species will become extinct.

For example, at a warming of 3°C, 9% of species still in existence at a warming of 2°C will have gone extinct.

Work out the number of species that have not gone extinct at a warming of 4°C.

Give your answer to 2 significant figures.

[4 marks]

A Cocoa Catastrophe

Chocolate is made from a crop called cocoa, which grows on a tree. Cocoa trees are vulnerable to extreme weather events such as floods and droughts, which means that more and more cocoa trees do not successfully produce cocoa each year. 

The number of cocoa trees in a plantation that are still producing cocoa is given by

\[C = 16500\ \times {0.82}^{n}\]

where \(n\) is the number of years after the cocoa trees are first planted.

a) Write down the number of cocoa trees first planted.

[1 mark]

b) Write down the annual percentage decrease of cocoa trees.

[2 marks]

c) Show that the number of successful cocoa trees after 4 years is less than half the number of trees first planted.

[2 marks]

A Changing Transport System

Cars and transport, and the gases and particulates that they emit from their exhausts have a serious effect on the environment and on human health.

In the future the transport system will have to look very different.
For example, in the UK there could be

three times as many journeys using electric buses rather than using bicycles

and two times as many journeys using bicycles than using private electric cars.

For the people in the UK write down the ratio of journeys using electric buses to bicycles to private electric cars.
[3 marks]

Rainforest Reforestation

One way of reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and slowing global warming is to plant trees which absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

A scientist plants some trees in the Amazon rainforest and the Tongass rainforest.

The scientist compares the carbon dioxide absorbed from the atmosphere by the trees she planted in the Amazon rainforest with the trees she planted in the Tongass rainforest.

Amazon

Carbon absorbed per tree

\(\frac{1}{5}\) more than in the Tongass

Number of trees planted

\(\frac{1}{4}\) less than in the Tongass

By what fraction is the total carbon dioxide absorbed by the trees planted in the Amazon compared with the total carbon dioxide absorbed by the trees planted in the Tongass rainforest? 
[3 marks]

Decreasing Fish Stocks

don't use calculatorGlobal warming will affect the world’s annual fishing catch.

In a world heated by a global warming of 2°C, the annual fishing catch will decrease by 3.3 million tonnes.

In a world heated by a global warming of 1.5°C, the annual fishing catch will decrease by 1.5 million tonnes.

Express the reduction of the annual fishing catch in a world warmed by 2°C as a fraction of the reduction in annual fishing catch in a world warmed by 1.5°C.

Give your answer in its simplest form.
[2 marks]

Losing Coral Reefs

don't use calculatorGlobal warming will affect the world’s coral reefs.

In a world heated by a global warming of 2°C, we will lose 99% of coral reefs.

In a world heated by a global warming of 1.5°C, we will lose 81% of coral reefs.

Express the percentage of coral reefs lost in a world warmed by 2°C  as a fraction of the amount of coral reefs lost in a world warmed by 1.5°C. Give your answer in its simplest form.

[2 marks]

Calculating Sea Level Rise

The table shows information about sea level rise due to human-induced climate change.

(mm = millimetres).

Sea level rise in 2006 (mm)

Sea level rise in 2016 (mm)

40

80

Liam claims, “From 2016 to 2026 the sea level rise will increase by the same percentage as from 2006 to 2016.” He works out, 

Increase in sea level rise from 2006 to 2016 = 80 – 40

= 40

Sea level rise in 2026 = 80 + 40

= 120

Does the sea level rise of 120mm match his claim? Show your working.

[3 marks]