A Regrowing Reef

a) Use the substitution $$u = 4 – \sqrt{s}$$ to show that

$\int_{}^{}\frac{\text{dh}}{4 – \sqrt{s}} = – 8\ln\left| 4 – \sqrt{s} \right| – 2\sqrt{s} + k$

where k is a constant

[6 marks]

A coral reef is growing back after global temperatures are reduced from their peak value.

The rate of change of area covered by the reef is modelled by the differential equation

$\frac{\text{ds}}{\text{dt}} = \frac{t^{0.25}(4 – \sqrt{s})}{20}$

Where s is the surface area of the reef in m2 and t is the time, in years, after the reef begins to regrow.

b) Find, according to the model, the range of areas that could be covered by the coral reef.

[2 marks]

The coral reef has a surface area of 1m2 when it starts to regrow.

According to the model,

c) Calculate the time this reef would take to cover 12 m2, giving your answer to 3 significant figures.

[7 marks]

Losing Coral Reefs

Global warming will affect the world’s coral reefs.

In a world heated by a global warming of 2°C, we will lose 99% of coral reefs.

In a world heated by a global warming of 1.5°C, we will lose 81% of coral reefs.

Express the percentage of coral reefs lost in a world warmed by 2°C  as a fraction of the amount of coral reefs lost in a world warmed by 1.5°C. Give your answer in its simplest form.

[2 marks]