A Level

Experiments and Demonstrations

PowerPoint Talks

Dundee Satellite Receiving Station (requires free registration)

Current, forecast and archived (Met Office) charts

Rainfall Radar

News stories from BBC weather

News from the Met Office

TheWeather Club

Have a look at the Barometer – a regular podcast featuring weather and climate issues from the University of Manchester.

A one hour tutorial on Climate variability, change and water resources from MetEd (requires free registration). The level is suitable for A level.

A very useful set of animations, videos and explanations from Wycombe High School’s Animated Geography.

Other recommended useful links

GCSE resources

  • GA talk – recent case studies of mid-latitude depressions


    Some resources and links from the talk given by Sylvia Knight at the Geographical Association meeting in April 2012:
    How does the conveyor belt flow relate to the traditional picture of anticlockwise air flow at the surface?

    Dr. Sue Gray, from the University of Reading, replies “The cold and warm conveyor belts are in the cyclonic (anticlockwise in Northern hemisphere) sense. The geostrophic winds follow the isobars and the isobars aren’t completely circular around a cyclone. The sharpening of pressure gradient (reduction in the isobar separation) associated with the warm conveyor belt is usually obvious on a synoptic chart. You can’t usually see the cold conveyor belt in the isobar separation because the cold conveyor belt is usually only visible if you look in a system-relative sense (i.e. you take the eastwards motion of the depression away from the winds). The cold conveyor belt travels westwards relative to an eastwards travelling system resulting in weak earth-relative winds, except if it hooks all the way around the system to the west of the system centre – in this case you can see very strong surface winds associated with the cold conveyor belt.”

    How does the conveyor belt flow relate to the jet stream flow in the upper troposphere?

    Dr. Sue Gray, from the University of Reading, replies “Conveyor belts are distinct from the jet stream but you wouldn’t have a cyclone and hence conveyor belts without a jet stream and so all features will be present and in the correct relative positions.

    A common image is that of the jet stream acting as a ‘hoover’, removing the rising/ diverging air from above the depression. Is this at all accurate?

    Dr. Sue Gray, from the University of Reading, replies “It’s more true to think of the warm conveyor belt as a hoover extracting air from the top of the boundary layer. This is particularly important if there is pollution trapped in the boundary layer. There are ascent (and upper-level divergence) regions associated with confluence and diffluence of streamlines (e.g. to the left of a jet (or jet streak) entrance region and to the right of a jet (or jet streak) exit region) and the removal of this air is associated with the lowering of pressure in an intensifying cyclone. However, the values of ascent due to this mechanism are usually much weaker than those associated with the warm conveyor belt (and any convection embedded within it).

    How can the cold conveyor belt rise at the centre of the depression, over the occluded front – isn’t it rising into the warm sector air?

    Dr. Sue Gray, from the University of Reading, replies “The warm conveyor belt ascends up the cold frontal surface in the warm sector and then ascends over the warm front. It can then split into cyclonic and anticyclonic components. The cold conveyor belt lies ahead of and beneath the warm frontal surface in the cold air. It does ascend, but much less so than the air in the warm conveyor belt, so it always lies beneath the warm air. The warm front may become occluded near the centre of the depression.